Indoor violets: types, purchase and care at home
An honorable place among indoor plants is traditionally occupied by the indoor violet - although caring for it brings a lot of trouble to flower growers, the lush flowering becomes the reward. At present, breeders have bred over 900 species of Saintpaulias or Usambara violets, differing in the shape and color of flowers, foliage and many other characteristics. Among such a variety, every florist will certainly be able to choose several varieties of indoor violets to their liking.
Variety of species of uzambar violets
But how harmless are indoor violets? Perhaps you have heard a strange superstition according to which you cannot decorate an apartment with violets - men will not linger in the house, and it will not be possible to build personal happiness. Unsurprisingly, many young women have the question: "Is it possible to keep violets at home?"
In fact, there is an opposite opinion among the people - gentle saintpaulias help smooth out conflicts in the family, bring love and prosperity to the house. And in accordance with Feng Shui, these indoor flowers are at all a symbol of family happiness, teach restraint, pacify selfishness (especially they contribute to mutual understanding in the family of violets of violet color).
In addition, violet indoor plants are also great at humidifying the air, especially if kept on wick irrigation. Just do not breed too many Saintpaulias in the bedroom, otherwise sleep problems may arise.
Video about indoor violets
A common feature of all Saintpaulias is leaves collected in a root rosette. For the rest, the types of indoor violets differ:
- according to the shape of the structure of flowers (edged, classic, fantasy, star-shaped, chimeras);
- by the type of petals (simple, double and semi-double);
- by color of flowers (monochromatic white, pink, blue, purple, etc., as well as flowers with a non-uniform color);
- by the shape of the leaves (round, oval and elongated, serrated at the edges and smooth);
- by the color of the leaves (from light green to dark);
- by the size of the plant itself (miniatures, microminiatures, giants).
Less demanding to care for home flowers violets of the classic type with five-petalled flowers
The most capricious are fancy homemade violets, on the petals of which there are specks, dashes and dots of various shades. If you take care of them incorrectly, the fantasy pattern will simply disappear from the petals. Difficulties for novice florists also arise with chimera violets, which have contrasting stripes on the flower petals. When propagated by cuttings, the pattern in chimeras is not preserved, therefore propagation is allowed only by lateral stepchildren or by dividing the mother bush.
Less demanding to care for are home flowers of the classic type violets with five-petal flowers, star-shaped Saintpaulias with flowers resembling an asterisk, and fringed violets, which have a border of various colors and widths along the edge of the petals.
What you need to consider when buying indoor violet flowers
Many varieties of Saintpaulias are now quite expensive, so buying a flower should be taken seriously, having figured out the most important points in advance. Most often, flower shops sell commercial violets with beautiful bouquet blooms, which are easier to throw away after flowering - such violet indoor plants require special care.
For successful cultivation and breeding of violets, it is better to take leafy cuttings. Firstly, it is not a fact that next year the flowering of an adult plant will be exactly the same as when buying (Saintpaulias are generally characterized by variability), after the lush flowering of violets at home, they may completely lose their decorative effect and weaken. Secondly, from one leaf during rooting, you can get several children and plant them in different pots. Of course, this does not apply to chimeras.
Most often, flower shops sell commercial violets with a beautiful bouquet bloom.
If you have no idea how adult indoor violets will look like, photos of the selected varieties should be viewed on the Internet in advance. Just do not forget to ask the seller to indicate the variety of each cut when buying, so that you do not get confused later. And ask if it is typical for the varieties you purchase that varietal color is not preserved (instead of variegated flowers, monochromatic ones are obtained).
When buying a young plant, make sure that the home violet does not have spots on the leaves, signs of decay of the growing point, its leaves are not elongated (which happens from a lack of light), the rosette is symmetrical. There should be no plaque on the soil surface. It is not recommended to buy Saintpaulias in too cold or hot seasons - by the appearance of the plant, you will not immediately determine that its roots are frostbitten or overheated from the heat. Home violets bought in the spring feel best of all: caring for them is not complicated by eliminating problems with the root system.
Leaf cuttings should be transported home in plastic containers or boxes so as not to break inadvertently. As a last resort, tie the stalk in a plastic bag. If the leaves of a young plant broke during transportation, immediately remove them from the outlet.
Basic rules on how to care for home violets
Finally, indoor violets appeared in your home: how to care for these delicate plants so as not to harm? First, it is advisable to quarantine the purchased flower for a couple of weeks in a room where there are no other plants. If you notice the slightest signs of violet disease, spray the plant with the Maxim system fungicide and after 20 minutes blot the leaves with a napkin.
When removing the lower leaves, soil is poured into the pot, and when the trunk of the Saintpaulia is too bare, a transplant is carried out
You should not immediately engage in transplanting - a violet indoor flower can grow quietly in a small container until the size of the outlet exceeds the diameter of the pot by more than three times.
Violet home care requires the following:
- regular watering when the soil surface dries up;
- weekly fertilizing with mineral fertilizers;
- lack of drafts;
- additional illumination in case of a lack of light;
- removal of wilted flowers;
- cleaning the leaves from dust with a brush or damp sponge.
Violet transplant video
Young plants need to be rotated 45 degrees every three days to form a symmetrical rosette. If you have an adult violet growing, home care will include the mandatory removal of old leaves. When the lower leaves are removed, the soil is poured into the pot, and when the trunk of the Saintpaulia is too bare, a transplant is carried out with the rosette deepening to the lower leaves. On average, transplanting is carried out once a year, since during this time the soil in the pot is depleted, and the plant in the pot becomes cramped.
The main thing to remember when buying indoor violet flowers is that they must be cared for regularly, otherwise the plants will simply refuse to bloom. Well, those flower growers who know well how to care for home violets, and do not forget about these delicate flowers, will definitely admire the bright and lush flowering of Saintpaulias on their windowsills.
How to propagate a violet leaf at home
Uzambara violets are attractive for home keeping with their long flowering, variety of varieties, unpretentiousness and the possibility of easy reproduction. These flowers do not need a lot of space on the windowsill, sometimes they are even kept on the shelves next to the window, illuminated with fluorescent lamps. Saintpaulias are considered a symbol of home comfort, they are found in almost every apartment. Let's talk about how you can propagate these delicate plants with just one leaf.
How to care for violets
In general, it is a great idea to have violets, but first it is important to know how to care for these wonderful flowers so that they will delight you with their long flowering. In the process of caring for the Uzambara violets, be sure to carefully look at them at least once every few days. This is necessary in order to see at the time if the plant has undergone a disease, or to understand whether you are caring for them correctly. Violets regularly need to be cleaned of dust, turned over, if the lighting is one-sided, replant and remove stepchildren in time.
Violet care. Illustration for the article is used under a standard license © delniesoveti.ru
It is important that the violets have enough space so that they do not shade each other, otherwise, leaves that do not receive enough light will begin to die off. And if you notice even the slightest signs of a deviation from the norm, then you must definitely watch them and take certain steps to eliminate the cause of the ailment.
If there are violet flowers in your apartment, then they do not negatively affect the health of any of the family members. However, dust, which tends to accumulate on leaves and shelves, can cause allergies. Violets do not particularly affect humidity and microclimate, but they add extraordinary coziness to your home.
For normal development, the Usambar violet needs to create favorable conditions. It is worth paying special attention to factors such as humidity, light and temperature. Violets feel great at a humidity of 50-70%. Unfortunately, in city apartments the air is almost always dry, especially in summer, when it is hot outside, and in winter during the heating season. This problem can be solved by creating the necessary moisture near the plant itself. To do this, you can put cups of water next to the plant, or cover the pots with sphagnum moss. If your uzambara violets are placed on the shelves, then you can separate them with glass or oilcloth.
Blooming violets. Illustration for the article is used under a standard license © delniesoveti.ru
For breeding violets, you also need to create greenhouse conditions. Violets do great at 20-25 degrees.
At night, the air temperature should be slightly lower. Temperature fluctuations from 12-14 degrees to 28-30 are permissible. Violets can withstand temperatures of 6-7 degrees, but not more than a few hours. If the temperature drops further, then the violet loses flowers, and most of them get burns and the turgor of the leaves decreases.
High temperatures also negatively affect violets. At high temperatures, increased evaporation from the surface of the leaves begins, which disrupts the normal metabolism. Some vulnerable varieties and variegated ones, as well as those violets that are planted in too loose or defective soil, are especially hard to tolerate the heat.
At high temperatures, the leaves begin to turn yellow and fall off. If your violets are on the shelves, then the pots are likely to overheat with the lower illumination lamps, especially if the shelves are metal. Therefore, take care of thermal insulation in advance. In winter, violets, which are located on the windowsills, are also subject to temperature changes.
Top dressing of violets. Illustration for the article is used under a standard license © delniesoveti.ru
Cold conditions slow down the development and flowering of violets, but it promotes more vivid flowering and the formation of larger flowers. And at high temperatures, on the contrary, the development of plants and their flowering is accelerated, but the flowers are smaller and brighter. A temperature below normal contributes to the appearance of rot, and above normal to the appearance of parasites (ticks, thrips, worms).
Violets will like to be on the windows in a cool apartment so that they are not exposed to direct sunlight. If the apartment has no drafts, household dust, the air does not contain industrial pollution, then your violets enjoy life, delighting you with their lush flowering.
How to properly care for violets in winter
In winter, violets lack light, especially on the northern windows, so during this period they need to be supplemented. In summer, you need to shade violets with curtains, or blinds from the scorching, bright sun. Violets are shade-tolerant plants, but the need for light also depends on the variety.
Transplant of violets. Illustration for the article is used under a standard license © delniesoveti.ru
For example, violets with dark leaves can easily tolerate excess light. But violets with variegated leaves suffer more often from burns and their leaves can darken under the influence of the sun. If the violets do not have enough light, then you can easily understand this by the elongated petioles and the lack of flowering.
With an excess of light, the petioles are shortened, young leaves curl, and the center of the rosette is deformed, the leaves turn yellow and fade. Although, a violet can get burns not only from an overabundance of light, but also from a cold temperature. Light also affects the color of flowers (if there is enough light, then the flowers are bright, and with a lack of light, the flowers are paler).
In the homeland of violets, daylight hours lasts 12 hours. But this does not mean that you need to strictly adhere to such a routine. It is enough to light the violets for 8-10 hours a day. And so that the violets began to bloom, then gradually you need to increase the lighting. You can use conventional fluorescent lamps.
But they give colder light, which is not very beneficial for plants. Lamps should be placed at a height of 15-20 cm from the tops of the plants.
The next step in organizing proper care of violets is to prepare loose and nutritious soil. Soil for Saintpaulias should be good for air permeability and retain moisture after watering.
In flower shops, ready-made substrate "for violets" is sold, which is saturated with nutrients and fertilizers. To prepare the substrate yourself, you will need:
- sheet soil
- river sand.
Stick to a 3: 5: 1 ratio. Add a small amount of charcoal and moss.
Remember to periodically fluff the soil after watering. With the reproduction and transplantation of plants, the soil is renewed.
VIOLET - CARE at home. DISEASES.
When planting, the flower is placed in the center of the container and gradually filled with earth so that there are no voids left. Water the plant after planting.
It is not necessary to water violets often, about once every 7-10 days. It is best to use bottom watering. When doing this, use settled, warm water.
Violets can be sprayed and washed if the leaves are contaminated. But before carrying out these procedures, the flower must be removed from the windowsill. After spraying or showering, you should also not rush to put the violet in place - wait until it dries, otherwise stains will form on the foliage.
Is it possible to keep violets at home
Many may find this question ridiculous, but the people really have an opinion about the unique ability of the violet to scare off males. It is believed that in a house decorated with living violets, not only will there be no permanent man, but also one should not expect happiness and prosperity. However, there is also an opposite opinion about the beneficial effects of violets on the home where they grow. So, such delicate and very whimsical flowers attract family well-being, love and happiness better than any talisman. If you believe the teachings of Feng Shui, flowers are the main symbol of family and happiness, because they teach you responsibility, restraint, compliance, and also fight selfishness. At this time, biologists also convince of the beneficial effect of flowers on the microclimate of the room. Almost all indoor plants are capable of humidifying the air, making it healthier and more beneficial for humans.However, you should not allow a large congestion in the bedroom, as it can provoke significant sleep problems.
In fact, Saintpaulia is not a violet and got its name only for the external resemblance of flowers to violets.
2.2 Forest violet - Viola reichenbachiana
Currently found in the wild in Great Britain, the forest violet has the earliest flowering of any other species. The leaves are green, heart-shaped, on long petioles, with a branched network of veins. The edges of the leaf plates have small denticles. The flowers are delicate, asymmetrical, purple. The throat of the flower is colored in a light, almost white shade with vertical dark strokes. The species is named after the famous botanist - Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach.
2.3. Violet tricolor, or pansies - Viola tricolor
The most famous biennial species with large flowers, painted in almost all colors of the rainbow - monochromatic and multi-colored. Plants are compact, have beautiful carved leaves on long stalks. In the first year, the plant grows a leaf rosette, and in the second, flowering occurs.
2.4. Fragrant violet or field - Viola arvensis
A small annual plant from 10 to 40 cm in height with ribbed erect shoots. Leaves are compound, green, often with denticles along the edge, arranged alternately. The flowers are asymmetrical, white or lilac with a yellowish center and brown thin strokes on the lower petal.
2.5 Horned violet - Viola cornuta
Herbaceous perennial plant up to 15 - 20 cm high. Leaves are round-toothed, oblong-oval, with a developed network of veins. Small, fragrant, variegated, pansy-like flowers in shades of blue, purple and lavender, up to 4 cm in diameter, bloom in spring and summer.
2.6 Mountain Violet - Viola montana
One of the most modest subspecies of violets, the plants have light green, oblong - oval leaves with bent leaf blades. Large denticles are located along the edge of the leaf plates. The flowers are solid, soft lilac.
2.7 Amazing violet - Viola mirabilis
Compact perennial herbaceous plants 15 - 30 cm high with large, cordate, green, serrated leaves on long, pubescent petioles. The flowers are small, solitary, lilac, fragrant, often invisible under the foliage.
2.8. Marsh violet - Viola palustris
Outwardly, the plant strongly resembles an amazing violet, but differs in more modest sizes - the plant height often does not exceed 8 cm, and delicate purple flowers rise high above the leaves on high peduncles. The leaves are round, green, serrated, glossy.
2.9. Violet moth - Viola sororia
A low-growing perennial plant with glossy, green, heart-shaped leaves on long petioles, collected in a basal rosette. The plant has 2 types of flowers - some are lavender or purple, rise above the foliage, others often remain under the leaves and do not open, but form seeds. Plant height is 15 - 25 cm.
2.10. Violet labrador - Viola labradorica
Charming, beautifully blooming appearance with rounded, dark green or purple leaves on long petioles. There are large denticles along the edges of the leaf plates. The flowers are lilac or purple, cover the plant very abundantly.
You may also be interested in:
Tomsk site about the Gesneriaceae "Fialki.tomsk.ru" by Svetlana Konotop. The site contains a variety of catalogs of popular Gesneriaceae, a section "Practice", useful links.
Violet leaf classification criteria
Violet leaves are classified according to the following criteria:
- The base of the sheet. The presence or absence of a discolored spot at the base of the leaf divides the leaves into two types: "girl" and "fight". Girl leaves have a discolored spot at the base. The ruffled edges of these leaves are reminiscent of a lush girlish hairstyle. But most varieties have “fight” - leaves.
- The surface of the sheet is another classification criterion. It can be smooth, spoon-shaped or quilted, that is, with deep veins.
- The leaves also differ in shape. There are even, jagged, wavy and corrugated leaves.
- The type of leaf coloration also plays a role in the classification of the leaves. Coloring is divided into three types: one-color, variegated and variable (in multi-colored forms).
Speaking about what saintpaulia looks like, it is worth noting that the color of the leaves varies from light green to rich, and even almost black tones. The reverse side can be painted light green, dark green. Sometimes the reverse side of the leaf is purple in color.
The variegation of Saintpaulias indoor flowers is manifested by white, cream and pink strokes and spots over the entire surface of the leaf or in the form of a border. Young plants have a lemon-golden dusting, but as they grow older, it disappears.
The nature of the hairy cover is also important. Leaves can be densely pubescent or sparsely pubescent, as well as smooth. Plants with smooth leaves are more susceptible to fungal diseases and various pests. Temperature fluctuations are also perceived by them much more painfully than plants with pubescent leaves.
Features of care in the winter
So that the violet does not die in winter, and this happens due to the lack of proper care, certain rules should be adhered to:
- Since the daylight hours are shorter in winter, it must be increased by using artificial lighting for several hours.
- Root decay should be eliminated by reducing watering. If, nevertheless, the plant is flooded, it must be saved by transplanting it into dry soil, and covered with a jar on top. The jar is removed when the root system is restored, this can be recognized thanks to a new leaf.
- Protect Saintpaulia from cold, dry air. It must be moved away from heating appliances and drafts.
- Hygiene required. Always sterilize the soil before replanting the outlet. If a disease is suspected, isolate the bush from other plants.
- Do not grow large plant species near the violet, such as palms, ficuses, as various pests can live on them - mites, thrips, aphids. It is better if geranium is located next to the Saintpaulia, which can scare off annoying parasites. Spathiphyllum humidifies the air well, so the neighborhood with it will not harm a small violet.
Saintpaulia is a very beautiful plant. They are distinguished by a huge variety of textures and colors. If you follow the above rules for caring for a room violet at home, then this gentle creature will often delight with its blooming, full of health, the look of all household members.
Agrotechnical features of growing indoor violets
Collecting violets is facilitated by the fact that the features of caring for them are almost identical. Despite the availability of agrotechnical techniques that make it possible to understand how to care for a violet at home, they must be performed in full in order to fully enjoy the splendor of a blooming violet.
Adequate lighting plays a key role, as when it is deficient, the plant looks weak and sluggish. Diffused light without scalding direct rays is preferable. If the room has a south orientation, then you should take measures to provide shading. Moisture-loving violets will love the kitchen. In the winter season, in order to preserve the violet flower, home care should provide for placing lamps next to the home greenhouse to provide additional lighting, creating 13-14 hour daylight hours.
It is important to correctly organize the watering regime to create a strong, long-blooming green corner of violets. This plant is quite susceptible and capricious, does not tolerate the drying out of an earthen coma, and will not develop well in excessively moist soil.
Water is taken at room temperature. The intervals between watering are a week in the autumn-winter season and 3-4 days in the summer. Experienced growers are guided by the state of the soil mixture
Water is carefully poured directly onto the surface of the soil, avoiding droplets from falling on the leaves or growing points of flowers, so as not to cause them to rot.
You can pour water into the sump. When the lump is saturated with moisture, it is imperative to pour out the excess liquid. To ensure the required humidity of the ambient air, a container with water is placed next to the pots. You cannot spray violets.
Violet flower home care
The soil for high-quality growth of violets is needed not only nutritious, but also loose with a light structure. Judging by the reviews of some gardeners, the potting mix offered in stores is poorly wetted with water. You can find a way out by preparing a composition from garden soil with the addition of a small amount of sand. This mixture is preheated in the oven, which makes it safe from larvae and fungi. A drainage pillow must be installed in the pot (it is convenient to use expanded clay).
Top dressing is included in the care of home violets, being one of the mandatory agricultural practices. Nitrogen fertilizers are useful for young plants to develop stems and foliage. During the period of bud formation, potassium-phosphorus complexes are necessarily introduced. During active flowering, adult plants are fed every two weeks with complex fertilizer, acquiring its universal varieties or specially adapted for violets
The nutrient solution, diluted according to the instructions, is carefully poured onto the soil or added to the irrigation water poured into the pan.
Violets - home care
1.1. Reproduction, growing from seeds
Seeds are sown in late winter - early spring. If you harvest seeds from your own plants, then the seedlings may not inherit the attractiveness of their parents. Stem and leaf cuttings using growth hormones.
As the growing season begins, keep the soil evenly moist. Make sure there is no moisture in the pan after watering. When the substrate dries up, plants can shed flowers. Better to use bottom watering with soft water.
1.3 Diseases and pests
Fungal diseases when moisture gets on the leaves and stems. Leaf spot. Plants will not flower when grown in the shade. Direct sunlight on leaves causes sunburn. Brown spots appear on the leaves when watering with cold water.
You may also be interested in:
- Ever-flowering begonia - planting and care at home, photo of an indoor flower, growing from seeds, varieties, reproduction, soil composition for growing
- Fragrant geranium - photo, medicinal properties, home care, description of varieties of indoor plants, propagation by cuttings - rooting, flowering time, use of essential oil, pruning, transplanting
- Ficus - photo, home care, names and photos of varieties, reproduction, signs, transplanting indoor plants, watering, pruning and shaping
- Cyclamen - home care, photos, maintenance after purchase, reproduction - growing from seeds, flowering, transplanting, soil for growing in a pot
1.4 Transplanting violets
Annual species do not need to be transplanted. Perennials are transplanted annually, in spring, into fresh soil. Violets bloom more abundantly in slightly cramped conditions, so you should only change the volume of the pot if necessary. Violet pots should have large drainage holes.
1.6 Top dressing
Feed complex fertilizers for flowering plants every 2 weeks from spring to autumn. Violets are also very fond of organic feeding.
Air humidity is high. Place the plants on a pallet of damp pebbles or humidify with a room humidifier. Spraying can only be done with good air movement and only in the morning. Viols do not like cold drafts.
From spring to autumn, flowering is very abundant and long lasting.
1.9 How to care for violets
As soon as you notice wilted flowers, remove them, this will stimulate the emergence of new flower buds. After flowering, you can cut the plants at a height of 5 - 7 cm from the ground level - after such a procedure, re-flowering is possible. In perennial species, it is worthwhile to remove old wilting leaves in a timely manner.
You may also be interested in:
- Saintpaulia - photo, violet varieties, home care, plant propagation, soil for growing indoor flowers, diseases and pests, transplantation, fertilization, watering
- Chrysanthemum - photo, planting and growing in a pot, varieties of domestic chrysanthemums, description, reproduction, flowering time, flower value, transplantation, diseases and pests
- Lily - a photo of a flower, planting and care in the open field and at home, reproduction, pruning and transplanting of domestic lilies, the composition of the soil for growing, feeding
- Magnolia - flower photo, tree care at home, planting seedlings, description of the plant, soil for growing shrubs, varieties, flowering time, reproduction at home
Violet prefers a cool content at a temperature of 16 - 20 ° C. With the onset of summer heat, plant development slows down.
A well-lit place, indoor violets will gladly sunbathe in the morning and in the evening, but it is better to shade the plants in the daytime. Can be grown under artificial lighting with fluorescent lamps.
Violas can be grown as ground cover plants or as ampelous plants in hanging baskets.
3 Care rules
The rules for caring for a violet must be studied before purchasing such a plant. Indeed, the growth of culture and its flowering depend on this. If some conditions cannot be met, then it is recommended to choose unpretentious varieties.
You need to take care of the violet as follows:
- 1. Lighting. It should be absent-minded. Direct sunlight causes burns. Some varieties (variegated violet) require long daylight hours. To do this, you need to use special fluorescent lamps. It is recommended to turn the violet with different sides to the lighting so that it develops evenly.
- 2. Air temperature. In autumn and spring, it is recommended to rearrange the pots of violets away from the windowsills. If you keep them in this place constantly, it is fraught with stress for the plant due to the coolness. The optimum temperature is 20-22 C. With significant deviations from the norm, the violet will start to hurt. Although some varieties like a lower temperature - 18 C. This applies to variegated violets.
- 3. Watering. It should be regular and moderate. Enough 2 times a week. You can water the plant with the lower and upper methods. As for the first, the pot must be placed in a container of water. In the upper method, the liquid is poured directly into the pot of soil. In this case, you need to be very careful and act correctly so that water does not get into the outlet from the leaves. Otherwise, they start to rot. From time to time, you can wipe dirty leaves with a damp soft sponge. You need to use only settled and warm water.
- 4. Top dressing. You need to fertilize the violet throughout the year. During the period of active growth, more nitrogen-containing substances are required. When a bud is formed, you need to use phosphorus-potassium compounds. Kemira-Lux is perfect. You can also find special preparations that are intended just for violets. Fertilizers need to be applied along with watering once a week. The dosage should be 2-3 times less than what is written on the package.
- 5. Pruning.Damaged, diseased, or dry leaves must be pruned. Faded buds should also be removed. This will prolong flowering.
- 6. Transfer. Adult violets need it every year. The substrate is also supposed to be changed. It is recommended that the transplant be done in the spring, but if necessary, it can be carried out at any time of the year, including in winter. The diameter of the pot should be 3 times smaller than the diameter of the rosette itself. During transplanting, the roots should be carefully examined for damage. They must be white. If the shade is brown, then they are supposed to be removed, and the places of the cuts should be sprinkled with activated carbon in powder form.
If the rules for caring for a houseplant are not followed, then diseases develop or insect pests appear. The following diseases are dangerous for violets:
- 1. Powdery mildew. Whitish spots appear on the leaves.
- 2. Late blight. Brown spots appear on the leaves, the roots begin to rot.
- 3. Gray rot. Gray spots appear on the plant in different places.
- 4. Rust. The leaves have brownish-orange spots.
Fungal diseases can be dealt with with fungicidal preparations. "Fundazol" will do. If the plant is badly damaged, then it should be destroyed along with the soil, and the pot should be disinfected.
As for pests, the following are dangerous for violets:
- 1. Ticks. Their presence is indicated by a thin web, eaten marks on leaves and cuttings.
- 2. Shields. Sticky spots appear on the leaves.
- 3. Thrips. These are small black insects with elongated legs. They can be easily seen on the flower.
Acaricidal agents help against ticks. The rest can be dealt with with insecticides. Suitable "Agravertine" and "Aktara".
Caring for violets at home is not particularly difficult. The main thing is to ensure watering and placement in a special earthen mixture. The soil should be extremely loose, it should be excellent for air permeability, and absorb moisture. You can buy a ready-made mixture, but you can also easily do it yourself.
To do this, you will need expanded clay, which is poured into about half of the flowerpot, a small piece of charcoal and ordinary earth. The soil must be moist and contain minerals such as vermiculite and perlite. It is recommended to add sphagnum moss, a certain amount of crushed charcoal.
For transplanting a plant or seedling, it is allowed to use the soil of two options:
- You should take "Vermion for seedlings" (two-liter package), 2/3 cup of vermiculite, a glass of perlite, a glass of sphagnum moss (finely chopped), one-fifth of a glass of crushed charcoal, half a teaspoon of dolomite flour. Such a substrate for planting is thoroughly mixed and poured into a flowerpot. The soil should be very light, loose, breathable, sterile.
- For the second option, "Vermion for seedlings" (two liters) is also used as a basis, one liter of "Living Earth", a glass of vermiculite, a glass of perlite, one and a half glasses of sphagnum moss (chopped), 2/5 glasses of crushed charcoal, two thirds a teaspoon of superphosphate. The mixture is also mixed until smooth.
To ensure a beautiful flowering of a plant such as a violet, the care of which is quite simple, proper watering conditions should also be provided. For this, ordinary tap water is used, which must be boiled and cooled in advance. This must be done to get rid of chlorine and excess salts.
Violets love moisture, but they tolerate drying out much better than excessive watering. Before watering, you need to check the soil: if it is completely dry, then the plant needs moisture, but if there are traces of moisture, it is better to wait.
When watering, to ensure the normal conditions that home violets require, care involves washing the leaves from dust. This should be done not so often, about once every two months. Leaves are washed under a tap in warm water, it must not be allowed to enter the pot. Fertilizers are applied to the soil every two weeks (during flowering), in the normal state, once a month is enough.
If you have no problems with violets, then in the summer you can take up the arrangement of the local area, purchase perennial flowers for the flower bed in advance, blooming all summer, and think over the design of flower beds. Suitable for planting are primroses, peonies, lobelias, dwarf sweet peas and other exotics of the garden world. You can diversify the site with conifers, make a wattle fence in the country with your own hands, a dry stream or an artificial pond.
At low temperatures, it is better to remove the flower from the windowsill, and slightly reduce the watering. Usually, the plants are transferred to separate shelves at this time, where additional lighting and an increased level of humidity are provided.
The violets do not have a state of rest, as such, so they do not need to create any special conditions.
Reproduction and transplantation
When growing any indoor plants, which include home violets, care, or rather its special conditions, are necessary for reproduction and transplantation. Violets reproduce by leaf cuttings during spring and summer. To do this, take a cut of a leaf from the second row from an adult and healthy plant, the cut is made in a straight line or at an angle of forty-five degrees.
Violets often require transplantation. This is done when the sockets are large. For adult flowers, it is also necessary to carry out a rejuvenation procedure, that is, deepening the sockets and re-rooting.
If you organize the care correctly, then violets will delight you with an elegant look all season, regardless of whether it is snowing on the street or a cold autumn downpour.
Breeding violets at home
This event may seem very difficult for novice flower growers. But subject to a number of conditions, it is quite within the power of anyone. There are several ways to breed Saintpaulias:
Most often, leaves are rooted. To do this, cut one diagonally using a sharp instrument treated with a disinfectant. Then they put it in a glass of water. After a while, the roots will appear. When they reach a length of 5-7 cm, they can be transplanted into the ground. For the first time, it is better to cover the seedling with a film or a jar. When the kids grow up, they can be seated in separate pots. Flowering can be expected next year.
With seed propagation, it will not be possible to preserve the desired characteristics of the flower, therefore it is rarely used. In addition, it is quite difficult to germinate seeds at home.
If the conditions for keeping the flower are good, the bush often gives rise to new shoots, which are called stepchildren. They must be separated and transplanted into a separate pot. This is done during the next transplant, soil change.
Diseases and pests
Indoor violets can suffer from insects or get sick under the wrong conditions. For example, yellowed foliage indicates that the flower lacks moisture or nutrition, the light regime is violated. In order for Saintpaulia to become healthy, unfavorable factors must be eliminated.
Infectious diseases are more dangerous. Having identified the presence of a virus or fungus, you should immediately isolate the diseased bush from the rest to avoid transmission to healthy plants.
Powdery mildew - easily identified by the presence of white bloom on the leaves. Can affect any plant. It is provoked by an incorrect arrangement of the pot, too high humidity, excess nitrogen. Preventive measures - airing the room, keeping the windows clean. Leaves must be regularly wiped from dust. It is treated with special preparations by spraying.
Gray rot - quickly spreads through the leaves, flowers, and also affects the roots. A brown bloom affects almost the entire plant. The disease also infects the soil, so it can move to healthy specimens. After detecting gray rot, the soil must be shed with hot potassium permanganate. Diseased violets - to be removed from the rest. As a treatment, fungicide treatment is carried out.
Insects - often carried from the street on other plants. Aphid is very common. It feeds on plant sap, which is bad for flowers and buds. Violet leaves turn brown at the edges, flowers wither. Treatment with Mospelan helps. Ticks are of different types. They leave cobwebs, yellow spots, red dots on the leaves. The fight is carried out with the help of various drugs (acteplik, phytoverm).
How to care for violets during the colder months? The main thing is to provide additional lighting for the colors. Some hobbyists allocate a separate shelf for plants, where the backlight from energy-saving bulbs is mounted. Most amateurs try to create such conditions so that flowering continues in the winter season.
Move the pots from the windowsill to a warm place. It can be an insulated shelf or a separate room. The dryness that appears from heating devices has a bad effect on indoor violets. The pots are placed on pallets with expanded clay or pebbles. It is possible to increase the humidity of the air in other available ways.
Taking care of indoor violets is not always an easy task. But after a few mistakes, most amateur flower growers turn into passionate admirers of these small delicate flowers. They have whole families, and the apartment eventually turns into a blooming garden.
What a violet needs
1. Correct watering
First of all, he must be moderate. Indoor violet does not tolerate overflow very well. Therefore, it is imperative to take into account the humidity in the room. But even under the most favorable conditions, water should be done no more than twice a week.
Special care must be taken during flowering. Water should not get on the inflorescences
During this period, it is also undesirable to spray, as it can cause diseases.
The best way out is watering by immersion, that is, the pots with plants must be carefully immersed in a pan with some kind of nutritious moist substrate. It can be peat, expanded clay, sand or even river pebbles. In this case, there must certainly be holes in the bottom of the flower pots.
2. Competently compiled soil
A home violet will grow and develop normally if its content is close to life in natural conditions. With such measurements, one should also approach the composition of the soil: it should contain black soil or leafy soil, sifted river sand and peat. The ratio is something like this: 5: 1: 3.
During the transplanting of violets, expanded clay or pebbles should be poured onto the bottom of the pot. Then moisture will not stagnate, which often becomes the cause of plant diseases.
It is a good idea to add fine charcoal and dry moss to the substrate.
When choosing pots for violets, give preference to low containers with a diameter of 5 - 9 cm. Narrower ones are undesirable, they do not allow the root system to fully develop. In addition, soon there will certainly be a need to transplant a grown flower, and this harms its development and growth.
3. Timely feeding
A healthy plant needs full nutrition throughout the year. The most reasonable system is the alternate application of organic and mineral fertilizers. In the winter months, one organic feeding is enough for a violet. In spring and autumn, the amount of dressing increases up to three times. At this time, complete mineral fertilizers should be used.
In the summer, this process should be treated selectively: you need to carefully observe how well the plant feels.
4.Optimum temperature and light
Violet wants to be a pet, so good lighting is required, but she does not tolerate bright sunlight.
You should find a suitable place for her on the windowsill so that the leaves do not touch the glass. It would be nice to use fluorescent lamps, this will create good conditions for the development of the flower.
The delicate violet suffers from drafts, and at the same time it constantly needs fresh air. Therefore, the room must be ventilated, but at the same time, the flowers must be taken out to another place.
These are the basic conditions for keeping these cute, cozy plants that can truly decorate your home. There is nothing out of the ordinary in these conditions, and if you are truly a person with a passion for home gardening, it should not be difficult for you to observe them. And the reward will be a lush and long flowering.
Violet transplant rules
For a couple of hours, the soil of the transplanted violet is moistened so that the earthy clod easily leaves the walls of the pot. But it should not be heavily flooded, stain the plant or creep in your hands.
The flower is removed from the pot, cleaned of old soil and carefully examined for the presence of: Rot of Parasites Or dead roots. If available, everything: Cut out to living tissue And processed with crushed coal. If the root system has grown strongly, it can be cut off by 2/3; Saintpaulia will not do any harm. If the root system of the violet has completely died or is affected by rot, the roots are completely cut off along the trunk to the living tissue of the rosette.
Fresh articles for gardeners, gardeners and florists
IMPORTANT! The rosette is rooted in water and then planted in the usual way.
Many novice flower growers do not know how to properly transplant a violet into another pot. There are 3 methods for transplanting Saintpaulia. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages, nuances that you need to pay attention to.
- transplanting with a complete replacement of the earth mixture
- partial soil replacement
- with the help of transshipment.
When acidifying, they completely change the earth. The violet has already used all the nutrients from the substrate, so it is transplanted into a light soil mixture. During transplantation, the root system is examined, rotten and dried roots are removed, and the sections are sprinkled with crushed activated carbon. A drainage layer is poured at the bottom of the container, the roots are spread, and the earth is poured. The next morning, you can gently water under the root, add the substrate to the level of the leaves. More details in the video below:
Do not repot a plant in bloom. Budding indicates comfort, nutrient supply. The transplant is carried out when the soil becomes acidic or pests attack. They try not to damage the root system during transshipment, but they cut off all the buds and flowers, treat them from pests.
"House of violets" free. It's not about a real building, but about a movie. In it, the family acquires an estate with a flower garden and a bad reputation. If the plans are not to watch the series, but to buy a real plant, it will cost 200-500 rubles. This is the price tag of flower shops. Offers from private individuals are also received in the amount of 50-100 rubles.
Ads should be searched on the Internet. There are also websites of private sellers who breed violets personally, like Elena Lebetskaya. On such resources, prices also do not bite, starting from the same 50 rubles. However, if delivery is required, you will have to pay extra.