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Greening and Pac

Greening and Pac


How will greening and agri-environmental measures be applied concretely in the CAP reform?


Pruning of the Pecorino- Abruzzo grape in January 2013

Preview

The current CGO and GAEC (Mandatory Management Criteria and Good Agronomic and Environmental Conditions) are connected to the main themes. agro-environmental. Regional planning will also be more linear with the construction of a system that continuously represents the transition from the first pillar to measures encouraged with rural development (second pillar).

What changes instead?

1) The new GAEC "Protection of wetlands and carbon-rich soils, including the ban on first clearing" appears, with the clarification that the clearing of wetlands and carbon-rich soils (C) defined in 2011 as arable land is not considered first clearing (the protection obligation would still remain, which will entail the identification of such land and the maintenance / protection measures)

2) The rules are not resumed, i.e. the ban on grubbing up olive trees and the maintenance of olive groves and vineyards in good vegetative conditions remain unchanged (optional at EU level, but for Italy they have become mandatory)

3) The norm relating to crop rotation and the protection of permanent pasture disappears; the first aspect is now included in "greening" and as regards pasture it is expected to be kept within defined limits. From the point of view of the possible reductions for farmers in the event of infringements, the same rules as in the current system remain valid. The general framework of the cross-compliance commitments is not yet complete in the sense that some constraints deriving also from the joint application of Directive 2009/128 / EC relating to the sustainable use of pesticides will be implemented and new obligations directly applicable to farmers could arise.


Pruning of the Pecorino- Abruzzo grape in January 2013

For the next programming, the competitiveness of the agricultural sector is indicated among the objectives and priorities to be assigned to rural development.

In fact, among the six priorities of the rural development policy we find the strengthening of the competitiveness of agriculture in all its forms and the profitability of farms, with particular regard to the restructuring of farms with considerable structural problems and generational change in the agricultural sector. The accent is placed on agricultural companies, with less regard for forestry companies (for them different measures are foreseen to support forestry companies). We will take into consideration the difficulties of many companies that, having a small structure, need a restructuring in order to affect the market. It should be noted that the companies indicated by the Commission as particularly deserving of restructuring interventions as they are affected by considerable structural problems raise numerous questions, in fact we are talking about companies that have a small market share, market-oriented in particular sectors, or that require a diversification of activities.

According to the new approach, which does not provide for the breakdown by axes, the Commission attaches to the reform proposal a list of measures of particular importance for the various priorities and links only two measures to competitiveness: the quality of agri-food products and allowances in favor of areas subject to natural or other constraints.

What are the innovative investments?

If we analyze the measures considered to be of relevance to various Union priorities, we find, among others, investments in tangible fixed assets (Art 18) and the Development of agricultural companies and businesses (Art 20), which must certainly be considered as measures that can provide an important contribution to competitiveness of companies. Let's analyze the provision on investments in tangible fixed assets. First of all, it should be noted that despite the title of the article which refers exclusively to tangible investments, the text of the law also provides for intangible investments. There are four categories of investments:

  1. investments that improve the overall performance of the farm and which can only have the farm as a beneficiary. In the case of investments to support the restructuring of agricultural holdings, only holdings that do not exceed a certain size, defined by the Member States in their respective programs on the basis of the SWOT analysis, are eligible for support;
  2. investments relating to the processing, marketing and 1- development of agricultural products;
  3. investments concerning the infrastructure necessary for the development and adaptation of agriculture. The interventions in this category also include access to agricultural and forest land, land consolidation and land improvement, energy supply and water management;
  4. non-productive investments connected to the fulfillment of agri-environmental and forest-environmental commitments, to the conservation of biodiversity of species and habitats, to the enhancement in terms of public utility of Natura 2000 areas or other areas of great natural value to be defined in the program. But through this measure will it also be possible to finance the investments that companies will have to face due to the greening of the first pillar?

The new CAP will have a supporting structure that will stand on 2 pillars, 2 funds and 4 regulations.

The 1st pillar concerns market interventions, i.e. those for the stabilization of farmers' incomes through the monitoring of agricultural markets and the system of direct payments to farms. The 2nd pillar promotes and supports the competitiveness and development of agricultural enterprises in the broader context of rural development, with measures planned at the territorial level.

As for the previous one, the financing of the CAP will be guaranteed by two funds for the 2014-2020 period:

  • the Feaga (European Agricultural Guarantee Fund);
  • the EAFRD (European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development).


Pecorino variety reared in espalier - Abruzzo January 2013 Abruzzo January 2013

In conclusion, what are the needs arising from the reform?

1) Better distribution of support both between and within Member States;
2) The activation of more targeted measures to address environmental challenges and increased market volatility.
The pressure on agricultural incomes will still be felt but as indeed in all sectors from 1st to 4th year: farmers will still have to face difficulties and risks in a context of slowdown in general productivity and reduction of economic margins due to the continuous increase. of the prices of means of production. It is therefore necessary that income support is maintained and the tools that allow for better risk management and a more adequate response capacity to emergency situations must be strengthened.

Cross compliance remains the fundamental guarantee of direct payments; to this is added 30% of direct payments destined for the environment (greening), which represents the most important innovation of the reform: greening, which is aimed at strengthening the environmental aspects in the CAP, introduces legislation in the 1st pillar aimed at raising awareness among all farmers of the European Union which receive support to go beyond current cross compliance obligations and to take positive action on the climate and the environment on a daily basis. In fact, greening is an economic support for ecologically sustainable agricultural practices that should safeguard the production of common goods and their intrinsic environmental values, in line with the objectives of the Europe 2020 Strategy.

It is the second most important component after the basic payment, for an amount corresponding to 30% of the national ceiling, the same for all Member States. Farmers will be entitled to it provided that they receive the basic payment and that they respect their eligible hectares. three agricultural practices considered beneficial for the climate and the environment:

  1. crop diversification;
  2. maintenance of permanent lawns;
  3. presence of 7% of ecological areas of interest.

These agricultural practices must coexist except in the case of the presence of permanent grassland only.

The ascertainment of the beneficiary's non-compliance with these commitments entails the withdrawal of payments in whole or in part. The environmental function of greening is not only linked to the balance of CO2 emissions but the prevention of hydrogeological instability is also an environmental activity and it is essential to take into account the different hydrogeological and pedoclimatic situations and the different agronomic and cultural vocations of the different nations, leaving each country the possibility to continue investing in certain crops, whether they are arboreal or herbaceous, so that the “greening” effect, that is, the overall effect of reducing CO2 emissions and reducing hydrogeological disruptions, can be carried out by each individual state while maintaining its agricultural and landscape specificity.

Dr. Antonella Di Matteo


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Contents

  • 1 Origins
  • 2 Regulations and industry initiatives
    • 2.1 Government
    • 2.2 Industry
  • 3 Approaches
    • 3.1 Product longevity
    • 3.2 Data center design
    • 3.3 Software and deployment optimization
      • 3.3.1 Algorithmic efficiency
      • 3.3.2 Resource allocation
      • 3.3.3 Virtualizing
      • 3.3.4 Terminal servers
    • 3.4 Power management
      • 3.4.1 Data center power
      • 3.4.2 Operating system support
      • 3.4.3 Power supply
      • 3.4.4 Storage
      • 3.4.5 Video card
      • 3.4.6 Display
    • 3.5 Materials recycling
    • 3.6 Cloud computing
    • 3.7 Edge Computing
    • 3.8 Telecommuting
    • 3.9 Telecommunication network devices energy indices
    • 3.10 Supercomputers
  • 4 Education and certification
    • 4.1 Green computing programs
    • 4.2 Green computing certifications
    • 4.3 Blogs and Web 2.0 resources
    • 4.4 Ratings
  • 5 ICT and energy demand
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 Further reading

In 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency launched Energy Star, a voluntary labeling program that is designed to promote and recognize the energy efficiency in monitors, climate control equipment, and other technologies. This resulted in the widespread adoption of sleep mode among consumer electronics. Concurrently, the Swedish organization TCO Development launched the TCO Certified program to promote low magnetic and electrical emissions from CRT-based computer displays this program was later expanded to include criteria on energy consumption, ergonomics, and the use of hazardous materials in construction. [4]

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has published a survey of over 90 government and industry initiatives on "Green ICTs", i.e. information and communication technologies, the environment and climate change. The report concludes that initiatives tend to concentrate on the greening ICTs themselves rather than on their actual implementation to tackle global warming and environmental degradation. In general, only 20% of initiatives have measurable targets, with government programs tending to include targets more frequently than business associations. [5]

Government Edit

Many governmental agencies have continued to implement standards and regulations that encourage green computing. The Energy Star program was revised in October 2006 to include stricter efficiency requirements for computer equipment, along with a tiered ranking system for approved products. [6] [7]

By 2008, 26 US states established statewide recycling programs for obsolete computers and consumer electronics equipment. [8] The statutes either impose an "advance recovery fee" for each unit sold at retail or require the manufacturers to reclaim the equipment at disposal.

In 2010, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) was signed into legislation by President Obama. The bill allocated over $ 90 billion to be invested in green initiatives (renewable energy, smart grids, energy efficiency, etc.) In January 2010, the U.S. Energy Department granted $ 47 million of the ARRA money towards projects that aim to improve the energy efficiency of data centers. The projects provided research to optimize data center hardware and software, improve power supply chain, and data center cooling technologies. [9]

Industry Edit

  • Climate Savers Computing Initiative (CSCI) is an effort to reduce the electric power consumption of PCs in active and inactive states. [10] The CSCI provides a catalog of green products from its member organizations, and information for reducing PC power consumption. It was started on June 12, 200. The name stems from the World Wildlife Fund's Climate Savers program, which was launched in 1999. [11] The WWF is also a member of the Computing Initiative. [10]
  • The Green Electronics Council offers the Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT) to assist in the purchase of "greener" computing systems. The Council evaluates computing equipment on 51 criteria - 23 required and 28 optional - that measure a product's efficiency and sustainability attributes. Products are rated Gold, Silver, or Bronze, depending on how many optional criteria they meet. On January 24, 2007, President George W. Bush issued Executive Order 13423, which requires all United States Federal agencies to use EPEAT when purchasing computer systems. [12] [13]
  • The Green Grid is a global consortium dedicated to advancing energy efficiency in data centers and business computing ecosystems. It was founded in February 2007 by several key companies in the industry - AMD, APC, Dell, HP, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Rackable Systems, SprayCool (purchased in 2010 by Parker), Sun Microsystems and VMware. The Green Grid has since grown to hundreds of members, including end-users and government organizations, all focused on improving data center infrastructure efficiency (DCIE).
  • The Green500 list rates supercomputers by energy efficiency (megaflops / watt), encouraging a focus on efficiency rather than absolute performance.
  • Green Comm Challenge is an organization that promotes the development of energy conservation technology and practices in the field of Information and Communications Technology (ICT).
  • The Transaction Processing Performance Council (TPC) Energy specification augments existing TPC benchmarks by allowing optional publications of energy metrics alongside performance results. [14]
  • SPECpower is the first industry standard benchmark that measures power consumption in relation to performance for server-class computers. Other benchmarks which measure energy efficiency include SPECweb, SPECvirt, [15] and VMmark. [16]

Modern IT systems rely upon a complicated mix of people, networks, and hardware as such, a green computing initiative must cover all of these areas as well. A solution may also need to address end user satisfaction, management restructuring, regulatory compliance, and return on investment (ROI). There are also considerable fiscal motivations for companies to take control of their own power consumption "of the power management tools available, one of the most powerful may still be simple, plain, common sense." [17]

Product longevity Edit

Gartner maintains that the PC manufacturing process accounts for 70% of the natural resources used in the life cycle of a PC. [18] More recently, Fujitsu released a life-cycle assessment (LCA) of a desktop that show that manufacturing and end of life accounts for the majority of this desktop's ecological footprint. [19] Therefore, the biggest contribution to green computing usually is to prolong the equipment's lifetime. Another report from Gartner recommends to "Look for product longevity, including upgradability and modularity." [20] For instance, manufacturing a new PC makes a far bigger ecological footprint than manufacturing a new RAM module to upgrade an existing one.

Data center design Edit

Data center facilities are heavy consumers of energy, accounting for between 1.1% and 1.5% of the world's total energy use in 2010 [1]. The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that data center facilities consume up to 100 to 200 times more energy than standard office buildings. [21]

Energy efficient data center design should address all of the energy use aspects included in a data center: from the IT equipment to the HVAC (Heating, ventilation and air conditioning) equipment to the actual location, configuration and construction of the building.

The U.S. Department of Energy specifies five primary areas on which to focus energy efficient data center design best practices: [22]

  • Information technology (IT) systems
  • Environmental conditions
  • Air management
  • Cooling systems
  • Electrical systems

Additional energy efficient design opportunities specified by the U.S. Department of Energy includes on-site electrical generation and recycling of waste heat. [23]

Energy efficient data center design should help to better utilize a data center's space, and increase performance and efficiency.

In 2018, three new US Patents make use of facilities design to simultaneously cool and produce electrical power by use of internal and external waste heat. The three patents use silo design for stimulating use internal waste heat, while the recirculation of the air cooling the silo's computing racks. US Patent 9,510,486, uses the recirculating air for power generation, while sister patent, US Patent 9,907,213, forces the recirculation of the same air, and sister patent, US Patent 10,020,436, uses thermal differences in temperature resulting in negative power usage effectiveness. Negative power usage effectiveness, makes use of extreme differences between temperatures at times running the computing facilities, that they would run only from external sources other than the power use for computing.

Software and deployment optimization Edit

Algorithmic efficiency Edit

The efficiency of algorithms affects the amount of computer resources required for any given computing function and there are many efficiency trade-offs in writing programs. Algorithm changes, such as switching from a slow (e.g. linear) search algorithm to a fast (e.g. hashed or indexed) search algorithm can reduce resource usage for a given task from substantial to close to zero. In 2009, a study by a physicist at Harvard estimated that the average Google search released 7 grams of carbon dioxide (CO₂). [24] However, Google disputed this figure, arguing instead that a typical search produced only 0.2 grams of CO₂. [25]

Resource allocation Edit

Algorithms can also be used to route data to data centers where electricity is less expensive. Researchers from MIT, Carnegie Mellon University, and Akamai have tested an energy allocation algorithm that successfully routes traffic to the location with the cheapest energy costs. The researchers project up to a 40 percent savings on energy costs if their proposed algorithm were to be deployed. However, this approach does not actually reduce the amount of energy being used it reduces only the cost to the company using it. Nonetheless, a similar strategy could be used to direct traffic to rely on energy that is produced in a more environmentally friendly or efficient way. A similar approach has also been used to cut energy usage by routing traffic away from data centers experiencing warm weather this allows computers to be shut down to avoid using air conditioning. [26]

Larger server centers are sometimes located where energy and land are inexpensive and readily available. Local availability of renewable energy, climate that allows outside air to be used for cooling, or locating them where the heat they produce may be used for other purposes could be factors in green siting decisions.

Approaches to actually reduce the energy consumption of network devices by proper network / device management techniques are surveyed in. [27] The authors grouped the approaches into 4 main strategies, namely (i) Adaptive Link Rate (ALR), (ii) Interface Proxying, (iii) Energy Aware Infrastructure, and (iv) Max Energy Aware Applications.

Virtualizing Edit

Computer virtualization refers to the abstraction of computer resources, such as the process of running two or more logical computer systems on one set of physical hardware. The concept originated with the IBM mainframe operating systems of the 1960s, but was commercialized for x86-compatible computers only in the 1990s. With virtualization, a system administrator could combine several physical systems into virtual machines on one single, powerful system, thereby conserving resources by removing need for the original hardware and reducing power and cooling consumption. Virtualization can assist in distributing work so that servers are either busy or put in a low-power sleep state. Several commercial companies and open-source projects now offer software packages to enable a transition to virtual computing. Intel Corporation and AMD have also built proprietary virtualization enhancements to the x86 instruction set into each of their CPU product lines, in order to facilitate virtual computing.

New virtual technologies, such as operating-system-level virtualization can also be used to reduce energy consumption. These technologies make a more efficient use of resources, thus reducing energy consumption by design. Also, the consolidation of virtualized technologies is more efficient than the one done in virtual machines, so more services can be deployed in the same physical machine, reducing the amount of hardware needed. [28]

Terminal servers Edit

Terminal servers have also been used in green computing. When using the system, users at a terminal connect to a central server all of the actual computing is done on the server, but the end user experiences the operating system on the terminal. These can be combined with thin clients, which use up to 1/8 the amount of energy of a normal workstation, resulting in a decrease of energy costs and consumption. [ citation needed ] There has been an increase in using terminal services with thin clients to create virtual labs. Examples of terminal server software include Terminal Services for Windows and the Linux Terminal Server Project (LTSP) for the Linux operating system. Software-based remote desktop clients such as Windows Remote Desktop and RealVNC can provide similar thin-client functions when run on low power, commodity hardware that connects to a server. [29]

Power management Edit

The Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI), an open industry standard, allows an operating system to directly control the power-saving aspects of its underlying hardware. This allows a system to automatically turn off components such as monitors and hard drives after set periods of inactivity. In addition, a system may hibernate, when most components (including the CPU and the system RAM) are turned off. ACPI is a successor to an earlier Intel-Microsoft standard called Advanced Power Management, which allows a computer's BIOS to control power management functions. [ citation needed ]

Some programs allow the user to manually adjust the voltages supplied to the CPU, which reduces both the amount of heat produced and electricity consumed. This process is called undervolting. Some CPUs can automatically undervolt the processor, depending on the workload this technology is called "SpeedStep" on Intel processors, "PowerNow!" / "Cool'n'Quiet" on AMD chips, LongHaul on VIA CPUs, and LongRun with Transmeta processors.

Data center power Edit

Data centers, which have been criticized for their extraordinarily high energy demand, are a primary focus for proponents of green computing. [2] [30] According to a Greenpeace study, data centers represent 21% of the electricity consumed by the IT sector, which is about 382 billion kWh a year. [31]

Data centers can potentially improve their energy and space efficiency through techniques such as storage consolidation and virtualization. Many organizations are aiming to eliminate underutilized servers, which results in lower energy usage. [32] The U.S. federal government has set a minimum 10% reduction target for data center energy usage by 2011. [30] With the aid of a self-styled ultraefficient evaporative cooling technology, Google Inc. has been able to reduce its energy consumption to 50% of that of the industry average. [30]

Operating system support Edit

Microsoft Windows has included limited PC power management features since Windows 95. [33] These initially provided for stand-by (suspend-to-RAM) and a monitor low power state. Further iterations of Windows added hibernate (suspend-to-disk) and support for the ACPI standard. Windows 2000 was the first NT-based operating system to include power management. This required major changes to the underlying operating system architecture and a new hardware driver model. Windows 2000 also introduced Group Policy, a technology that allowed administrators to centrally configure most Windows features. However, power management was not one of those features. This is probably because the power management settings design relied upon a connected set of per-user and per-machine binary registry values, [34] effectively leaving it up to each user to configure their own power management settings.

This approach, which is not compatible with Windows Group Policy, was repeated in Windows XP. The reasons for this design decision by Microsoft are not known, and it has resulted in heavy criticism. [35] Microsoft significantly improved this in Windows Vista [36] by redesigning the power management system to allow basic configuration by Group Policy. The support offered is limited to a single per-computer policy. The most recent release, Windows 7 retains these limitations but does include refinements for timer coalescing, processor power management, [37] [38] and display panel brightness. The most significant change in Windows 7 is in the user experience. The prominence of the default High Performance power plan has been reduced with the aim of encouraging users to save power.

There is a significant market in third-party PC power management software offering features beyond those present in the Windows operating system. [39] [40] [41] available. Most products offer Active Directory integration and per-user / per-machine settings with the more advanced offering multiple power plans, scheduled power plans, anti-insomnia features and enterprise power usage reporting. Notable vendors include 1E NightWatchman, [42] [43] Data Synergy PowerMAN (Software), [44] [45] Faronics Power Save, [46] Verdiem SURVEYOR and EnviProt Auto Shutdown Manager [47]

Linux systems started to provide laptop-optimized power-management in 2005, [48] with power-management options being mainstream since 2009. [49] [50] [51]

Power supply Edit

Desktop computer power supplies are in general 70–75% efficient, [52] dissipating the remaining energy as heat. A certification program called 80 Plus certifies PSUs that are at least 80% efficient typically these models are drop-in replacements for older, less efficient PSUs of the same form factor. As of July 20, 2007, all new Energy Star 4.0-certified desktop PSUs must be at least 80% efficient. [53]

Storage Edit

Smaller form factor (e.g., 2.5 inch) hard disk drives often consume less power per gigabyte than physically larger drives. [54] [55] Unlike hard disk drives, solid-state drives store data in flash memory or DRAM. With no moving parts, power consumption may be reduced somewhat for low-capacity flash-based devices. [56] [57]

As hard drive prices have fallen, storage farms have tended to increase in capacity to make more data available online. This includes archival and backup data that would formerly have been saved on tape or other offline storage. The increase in online storage has increased power consumption. Reducing the power consumed by large storage arrays, while still providing the benefits of online storage, is a subject of ongoing research. [58]

Video card Edit

A fast GPU may be the largest power consumer in a computer. [59]

Energy-efficient display options includes:

  • No video card - use a shared terminal, shared thin client, or desktop sharing software if display required.
  • Use motherboard video output - typically low 3D performance and low power.
  • Select a GPU based on low idle power, average wattage, or performance per watt.

Display Edit

Unlike other display technologies, electronic paper does not use any power while displaying an image. [60] CRT monitors typically use more power than LCD monitors. They also contain significant amounts of lead. LCD monitors typically use a cold-cathode fluorescent bulb to provide light for the display. Some newer displays use an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in place of the fluorescent bulb, which reduces the amount of electricity used by the display. [61] Fluorescent back-lights also contain mercury, whereas LED back-lights do not.

A light-on-dark color scheme, also called dark mode, is a color scheme that requires less energy to display on new display technologies, such as OLED. [62] This positively impacts battery life and energy consumption. While an OLED will consume around 40% of the power of an LCD displaying an image that is primarily black, it can use more than three times as much power to display an image with a white background, such as a document or web site. [63] This can lead to reduced battery life and energy usage, unless a light-on-dark color scheme is used. A 2018 article in Popular Science suggests that "Dark mode is easier on the eyes and battery" [64] and displaying white on full brightness uses roughly six times as much power as pure black on a Google Pixel, which has an OLED display. [65] In 2019, Apple announced that a light-on dark mode will be available across all native applications in iOS 13 and iPadOS. It will also be possible for third-party developers to implement their own dark themes. [66] Google has announced an official dark mode is coming to Android with the release of Android 10. [67]

Materials recycling Edit

Recycling computing equipment can keep harmful materials such as lead, mercury, and hexavalent chromium out of landfills, and can also replace equipment that otherwise would need to be manufactured, saving further energy and emissions. Computer systems that have outlived their particular function can be re-purposed, or donated to various charities and non-profit organizations. [68] However, many charities have recently imposed minimum system requirements for donated equipment. [69] Additionally, parts from outdated systems may be salvaged and recycled through certain retail outlets [70] [71] and municipal or private recycling centers. Computing supplies, such as printer cartridges, paper, and batteries may be recycled as well. [72]

A drawback to many of these schemes is that computers gathered through recycling drives are often shipped to developing countries where environmental standards are less strict than in North America and Europe. [73] The Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition estimates that 80% of the post-consumer e-waste collected for recycling is shipped abroad to countries such as China and Pakistan. [74]

In 2011, the collection rate of e-waste is still very low, even in the most ecology-responsible countries like France. In this country, e-waste collection is still at a 14% annual rate between electronic equipment sold and e-waste collected for 2006 to 2009. [75]

The recycling of old computers raises an important privacy issue. The old storage devices still hold private information, such as emails, passwords, and credit card numbers, which can be recovered simply by someone's using software available freely on the Internet. Deletion of a file does not actually remove the file from the hard drive. Before recycling a computer, users should remove the hard drive, or hard drives if there is more than one, and physically destroy it or store it somewhere safe. There are some authorized hardware recycling companies to whom the computer may be given for recycling, and they typically sign a non-disclosure agreement. [76]

Cloud computing Edit

Cloud computing addresses two major ICT challenges related to Green computing – energy usage and resource consumption. Virtualization, dynamic provisioning environment, multi-tenancy, green data center approaches are enabling cloud computing to lower carbon emissions and energy usage up to a great extent. Large enterprises and small businesses can reduce their direct energy consumption and carbon emissions by up to 30% and 90% respectively by moving certain on-premises applications into the cloud. [77] One common example includes online shopping that helps people purchase products and services over the Internet without requiring them to drive and waste fuel to reach out to the physical shop, which, in turn, reduces greenhouse gas emission related to travel. [78]

Edge Computing Edit

New technologies such as edge and fog computing are a solution to reducing energy consumption. These technologies allow redistributing computation near the use, thus reducing energy costs in the network. [79] Furthermore, having smaller data centers, the energy used in operations such as refrigerating and maintenance gets largely reduced.

Telecommuting Edit

Teleconferencing and telepresence technologies are often implemented in green computing initiatives. The advantages are many increased worker satisfaction, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions related to travel, and increased profit margins as a result of lower overhead costs for office space, heat, lighting, etc. [80] The savings are significant the average annual energy consumption for U.S. office buildings is over 23 kilowatt hours per square foot, with heat, air conditioning and lighting accounting for 70% of all energy consumed. [81] Other related initiatives, such as Hoteling, reduce the square footage per employee as workers reserve space only when they need it. [82] Many types of jobs, such as sales, consulting, and field service, integrate well with this technique.

Voice over IP (VoIP) reduces the telephony wiring infrastructure by sharing the existing Ethernet copper. [83] VoIP and phone extension mobility also made hot desking more practical. Wi-Fi consume 4 to 10 times less energy than 4G. [84]

Telecommunication network devices energy indices Edit

The information and communication technologies (ICTs) energy consumption, in the US and worldwide, has been estimated respectively at 9.4% and 5.3% of the total electricity produced. [85] The energy consumption of ICTs is today significant even when compared with other industries. Some study tried to identify the key energy indices that allow a relevant comparison between different devices (network elements). [86] This analysis was focused on how to optimise device and network consumption for carrier telecommunication by itself. The target was to allow an immediate perception of the relationship between the network technology and the environmental effect. These studies are at the start and the gap to fill in this sector is still huge and further research will be necessary.

Supercomputers Edit

The inaugural Green500 list was announced on November 15, 2007, at SC|07. As a complement to the TOP500, the unveiling of the Green500 ushered in a new era where supercomputers can be compared by performance-per-watt. [87] As of 2019, two Japanese supercomputers topped the Green500 energy efficiency ranking with performance exceeding 16 GFLOPS/watt, and two IBM AC922 systems followed with performance exceeding 15 GFLOPS/watt.

Green computing programs Edit

Degree and postgraduate programs that provide training in a range of information technology concentrations along with sustainable strategies in an effort to educate students how to build and maintain systems while reducing its harm to the environment. The Australian National University (ANU) offers "ICT Sustainability" as part of its information technology and engineering masters programs. [88] Athabasca University offer a similar course "Green ICT Strategies", [89] adapted from the ANU course notes by Tom Worthington. [90] In the UK, Leeds Beckett University offers an MSc Sustainable Computing program in both full and part-time access modes. [91]

Green computing certifications Edit

Some certifications demonstrate that an individual has specific green computing knowledge, including:

  • Green Computing Initiative - GCI offers the Certified Green Computing User Specialist (CGCUS), Certified Green Computing Architect (CGCA) and Certified Green Computing Professional (CGCP) certifications. [92]
  • CompTIA Strata Green IT is designed for IT managers to show that they have good knowledge of green IT practices and methods and why it is important to incorporate them into an organization.
  • Information Systems Examination Board (ISEB) Foundation Certificate in Green IT is appropriate for showing an overall understanding and awareness of green computing and where its implementation can be beneficial.
  • Singapore Infocomm Technology Federation (SiTF) Singapore Certified Green IT Professional is an industry endorsed professional level certification offered with SiTF authorized training partners. Certification requires completion of a four-day instructor-led core course, plus a one-day elective from an authorized vendor. [93]
  • Australian Computer Society (ACS) The ACS offers a certificate for "Green Technology Strategies" as part of the Computer Professional Education Program (CPEP). Award of a certificate requires completion of a 12-week e-learning course designed by Tom Worthington, with written assignments. [94]
  • International Federation of Global & Green ICT "IFGICT"- promotes Green IT Professional, Certification requires minimum two years in ICT industry. IFGICT is shortlisted service provider by UNFCCC - CDM.

Blogs and Web 2.0 resources Edit

There are a lot of blogs and other user created references that can be used to gain more insights on green computing strategies, technologies and business benefits. A lot of students in Management and Engineering courses have helped in raising higher awareness about green computing. [95] [96]

Ratings Edit

Since 2010, Greenpeace has maintained a list of ratings of prominent technology companies in several countries based on how clean the energy used by that company is, ranging from A (the best) to F (the worst). [97]

Digitalization has brought additional energy consumption energy-increasing effects have been greater than the energy-reducing effects. Four energy consumption increasing effects are:

  1. Direct effect - Strong increases of (technical) energy efficiency in ICT are countered by the growth of the sector.
  2. Efficiency and rebound effects - Rebound effects are significantly high for ICT and incresead productivity often leads to new behaviors that are more energy intensive.
  3. Economic growth - Positive effect of digitalization on economic growth.
  4. Sectoral change - Growth of ICT services tends not to replace, but come in top of existing services. [98]


PAC, greening, set aside

PAC 2014-2020: anche il set aside può rientrare come coltura nell’ambito della diversificazione previsto dal pagamento greening. Ce.S.A.R.

Il CESAR (Centro per lo Sviluppo Agricolo e Rurale) è un’associazione riconosciuta, senza fini di lucro, fondata nel 1983, che svolge attività di formazione, ricerca e consulenza nei settori dello Sviluppo rurale, Agroalimentare, Politiche Comunitarie ed Ambiente.

Via Risorgimento, 3/b
06051 Casalina di Deruta (PG) - ITALY

Istituto di Istruzione Superiore “Ciuffelli-Einaudi” is both a technical and vocational secondary school for students from 14 to 19 years old, located in Todi (Perugia). The main objectives of “Ciuffelli-Einaudi” are to give students a high academic achievement and to favor their personal growth and development due to its peculiar characteristics and to the local social context, IIS “Ciuffelli-Einaudi” is working to create and implement a strong link between respect of tradition and local culture and attention towards innovation, opening to international horizons.

Contact person: Mrs Cristina Baldoni email: [email protected]

DALUM College

Dalum is the oldest and largest school for Agriculture, in Denmark. Appr. 250 students and 40 lectureres. Dalum is a traditionally Vocational Agricultural school (VET) offering agricultural skilled farmers education from basic level (Typically age 16-18) to management level (Typically age 23-28) From 2014 we have also provided the EUX (Combined upper secondary and skilled farmers education, lasting 4,5 years, qualifying students for both agricultural management education as well as academic educations).

Contact person: Mr Niels Erik Jespersenemail: [email protected]

Hochschule Neubrandenburg –

The Neubrandenburg University of Applied Sciences, founded in 1991 as a state university of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, hosts 80 professors, 70 junior scientists and currently has a total of 2,200 students and offers 33 Bachelor’s, Master’s and dual degree programmes in the health and social sciences, management, nutrition, food technology, agriculture and landscape architecture. The Neubrandenburg University of Applied Sciences has developed an independent and unique profile with regard to applied research, development, and knowledge transfe

Contact person: Mr Clemens Fuchs email: [email protected]

Profesionalna gimnaziya po veterinarna medicina ‘Prof. d-r. Georgi Pavlov’

Vocational High School of Veterinary Medicine ‘Prof. Dr. George Pavlov’ is situated in a region where the main priority in the economic development is agriculture and food industry. Dobrich is known as the ‘capital’ of the fertile land of Dobrudja, the biggest grain-growing region of the country. The Black Sea coastline is just 35km from the town. Mainly jobs are connected to Ag-sector and tourism.

Contact person: Mr Hristo Milushev email: [email protected]

Agro Management Tools WUR

Foundation Agro Management Tools of Wageningen University and Research Centre (AMT-WUR) stimulates the development of tools for agricultural use and the application of such tools. Also, AMT intends to improve knowledge transfer and applications of science based products. This will be achieved by working together with science institutes from Wageningen UR, other national and international institutes, practice and chain partners. The board of AMT consists of representatives of the Departments of Wageningen UR and two members from industry. The foundation organizes expertise around certain topics and projects.

Contact person: Mr Abele Kuipers email: [email protected]

ADRAT is a private non profit association founded in 1990. It has as associates the municipalities, agricultural associations and cooperatives, forestry and environmental associations, cultural associations and SME. Its intervention area is a rural mountainous region, with low density population and facing population exodus, where agriculture population is still very important, both social and economically.

Contact person: Mr Marco Fachada email: [email protected]

INIPA is the Research, Training and Development Department for the agri-food, environmental and services sectors. It was founded on October 24th, 1952, by initiative of the Coldiretti (Main National Confederation of Farmers in Italy), and is a legally recognized non-profit organization.. The mission is:

  • to assist the professional development of personnel working in the area of agriculture, environment and food
  • to support rural entrepreneurship by training courses, experimental research, business consulting in a logic of integrated regional development
  • to encourage cultural exchanges among professionals, companies, associations, universities, public institutions and National and Community management training centre.

Contact person: Mrs Daniela Dionesalvi email: [email protected]

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US EPA

In 2012, the city of Frankfort, Kentucky, applied to EPA’s Greening America’s Capitals Program for help creating a plan for the Second Street corridor. The city’s goals were to:

  1. Improve pedestrian and bicycle safety in the Second Street corridor, especially near the Second Street Elementary School, to encourage walking and biking and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  2. Reduce the quantity of stormwater runoff entering the drainage system to reduce combined sewer system overflows into the Kentucky River and improve water quality.
  3. Improve connections to the Kentucky River along a proposed Riverwalk trail.
  4. Enhance the visual appeal of the Second Street corridor to attract more foot traffic to local businesses, catalyze the redevelopment of vacant lots and storefronts, and support a mixed-use, walkable neighborhood.
  5. Improve connections between the state capitol building and downtown to attract tourists and visitors to the commercial corridor on Second Street.

The EPA team developed design options illustrating several potential remedies, including reducing turning radii, eliminating underused travel lanes, and widening sidewalks to make it easier and safer for pedestrians and bicyclists to get around. The design concepts include green infrastructure techniques such as street trees, rain gardens, and porous paving that capture rain where it falls, reducing runoff volume and filtering out pollutants as the water percolates into the ground.

You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more.

  • Greening America's Capitals - Frankfort, KY (PDF) (48 pp, 8 MB)


Glossario PAC

The greening prevede il rispetto di tre pratiche benefiche per il clima e l’ambiente, a fronte del quale si riceve il pagamento verde, una delle componenti del nuovo sistema dei pagamenti diretti. A tale pagamento è dedicato il 30% del massimale nazionale. La prima pratica riguarda la diversificazione delle colture, la seconda il mantenimento dei pascoli permanenti nelle aziende dove siano presenti, la terza il mantenimento o la costituzione di aree di interesse ecologico (Efa - Ecological Focus Area). L’obbligo di diversificazione colturale riguardale aziende che hanno una superficie a seminativo superiore a 10 ettari. Se la superficie a seminativo è compresa tra i 10 e i 30 ettari, la diversificazione richiede la presenza di due colture per le superfici a seminativo superiori a 30 ettari l’obbligo è di 3 colture. Sono escluse dall’obbligo le aziende sotto i 10 ettari e quelle la cui superficie a seminativo è interamente investita a colture sommerse per una parte significativa dell’anno. Sono previste deroghe per particolari utilizzi delle superfici a seminativo che non superano i 30 ettari. Le aree d’interesse ecologico sono state rese obbligatorie per superfici a seminativo superiori a 15 ettari. Queste dovranno assicurare che una superficie pari al 5% di quella a seminativo sia costituito da Efa. La soglia per le Efa potrà essere portata al 7% a seguito di un rapporto di valutazione che la Commissione dovrà presentare entro il 31 marzo 2017 accompagnato, eventualmente, da una proposta legislativa. Le aziende biologiche hanno diritto a ricevere il pagamento verde e non sono soggette agli obblighi del greening. Il sistema sanzionatorio per il mancato rispetto degli obblighi sulle misure di inverdimento viene introdotto gradualmente per impedire che le sanzioni penalizzino eccessivamente gli agricoltori in fase di prima applicazione, ma in modo tale da assicurare l’incentivo all’adozione di misure benefiche per l’ambiente. Pertanto nei primi due anni di applicazione della nuova Pac (anni di domanda 2015 e 2016) non è prevista alcuna sanzione. Nel terzo anno la quota dei pagamenti ecologici trattenuti sarà al massimo pari al 20% per arrivare al 25% dal quarto anno in poi. La riforma prevede che le pratiche verdi possano essere sostituite da pratiche equivalenti che riguardano impegni presi nell’ambito delle misure di sviluppo rurale o nell’ambito di regimi di certificazione ambientale nazionali o regionali che vanno oltre gli standard obbligatori previsti dalla condizionalità. Le pratiche equivalenti non sono soggette al doppio finanziamento (i pagamenti concessi nell’ambito delle misure del II pilastro andranno ridotti sulla base dei pagamenti concessi nell’ambito del I pilastro).


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